For example, some natives found in wet areas only, can also perform well in dry conditions under cultivation. Frank, NCSU. And for those considering solar, ask energy companies about cost sharing, he added. Heat from the earth can be used as an energy source in many ways, from large and complex power stations to small and relatively simple residential pumping systems. Solar power. Scale insects are common insect pests on ornamental trees and shrubs in landscapes. They work on contact with insects so they are best applied when crawlers are active. A range of technologies is used to convert the sun’s energy into electricity, including solar collectors and photovoltaic panels. Figure 4. Before you investigate these options, make sure your operation is as efficient as possible. Unlike soft scales, the protective covering can be lifted off the body of the armored scale. “It was enlightening to see the kind of money we were leaving on the table due to our legacy lighting systems,” said Michael Wisshack, general manager at Blooming Nursery. If the scales are alive, juice will come out and smear on your finger. They provided excellent control of the first generation and 6 weeks later plants were still protected from the second generation of crawlers. They feed, with their tube-like mouthparts, within the vascular system, where nutrients and fluids are transported. Neonicotinoids have systemic activity so the chemicals move into plants making them toxic for pests to consume. In the wild, they do not compete well with other species in dry areas, and this is why they come to occupy wet areas where they are more competitive. We treated euonymus plants with acetamiprid, dinotefuran, or thiamethoxam when first generation euonymus scale crawlers were emerging. Show base ingredients. For persistent armored scale problems or those scales that winter in the egg stage (pine needle or oystershell scle) insect growth regulators can be a promising biorational alternative. The lower amount of available water eliminates the need for honeydew production as a byproduct of feeding. Many Abies species have sensitive root systems and are better grown on the dry side with a very well-drained soil medium. Are unneeded winter fans and shutters covered with insulation? The Connecticut Farm Energy Program explains lighting choices and their benefits. Jim Owen is assistant professor, Nursery Crops Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech). Over 2650 species of armored scale pests exist. Intervention “The maintenance building is located next to our headquarters building. There are so many great conifers, but I have chosen a few to discuss which I consider to have merit. Northern bush honeysuckle (Diervilla lonicera) Due to shipping restrictions on hemlock, a grower of multiple cultivars in an area who can ship locally would be an asset. High pressure sodium lights are long lasting with an expected life of about 24,000 burning hours or six years for photo-controlled fixtures. His nursery, Mahoney Farm, is surrounded by multimillion-dollar homes in East Hampton, N.Y. The first choice is that of application method, whether overhead (impact or boom), drip or micro-irrigation (i.e. Ideally, timing your application with the emergence of crawlers from their mothers’ covers will eliminate an entire generation all at once. Nursery upgrades So, learn ways on how to treat hard or armored scale. ‘Filicoides’ has an open and irregular habit with long and straggly branches, dense clusters of fern-spray and green foliage. High populations of these sucking insects give plant stems a crusty appearance. Armored scale definition is - any of a family (Diaspididae) of scale insects having a firm covering of wax best developed in the female. Wind power. Scales, especially armored scales, are difficult to control. Insect growth regulators disrupt insect development preventing eggs and nymphs from developing into reproductive adults. The return on investment for these networks has been a few months to less than two years, depending on the type of operation and the value of the crop. Is the chimney 2 feet above the ridge of the greenhouse? Scale insects belong to a large group of sucking insects that attack a wide variety of trees and shrubs. This is because armored scales are less vulnerable to contact insecticides than soft scales. Thus, if the leaves below your scale infestation are covered in sticky honeydew or sooty mold you do not have armored scales. Uniformity distribution is measured using plastics cups simultaneously with measurement of canopy interception. “My accountant called it a no-brainer,” he said. If you missed her first story on natives in the April issue, find it here: http://bit.ly/11xjr1l. 1 hour) or application rate (i.e. Don't spray when the plant is in flower, or when the weather is very hot. Don’t worry. Geothermal and wind power were cost prohibitive. Most species spend the winter as adults or nymphs beneath their test. ... treatment for controlling the cycad aulacaspis scale insect has been spraying them with oils, like fish oil emulsion (1 part oil to 100 parts of water) or petroleum-based horticul- tural oil. The first nymphal instar is called a crawler and has functional legs, while the remaining instars are attached to the leaf and do not move. Control system Armored scales will remain on the branch after you have removed their tests (Figure 3). If you missed her first story on natives in the April issue, find it here: . Abies koreana (Korean fir, Zones 5-6) is a slow-growing, small statured, compact tree. Most plants won’t have a problem with horticultural oil mixed appropriately, but the odd bush or tree might experience phytotoxicity, so try a small spot first a few days ahead of when you plan to spray the whole plant. The group presented its findings to the nursery leadership in October 2009. Blooming Nursery in Cornelius, Ore., implemented lighting upgrades throughout the nursery, which includes a 40,000-square-foot propagation greenhouse, 60,000 square feet of heated greenhouses and 150,000 square feet of cool greenhouses and cold frames. This will identify losses due to infiltration and areas where insulation can be beneficial. Has the wiring system been checked for overloading or corrosion? Neonicotinoids can also remain effective for weeks to months depending on variables such as how they were applied and how fast plants are growing. Emerging technologies can also be used to remotely monitor real-time soil moisture levels, as well as provide weather, soil temperature, flow meter and other sensor-based data. In addition, new sensor-based systems allow for soils or substrates to be kept at a specified soil moisture level automatically, regardless of changing conditions. The protective covering over armored scales is produced by molted skins and secretions from the scale. Plants in the parking lot produced dense mounds, 48 inches tall and 59 inches wide, with coppery red new foliage color, which slowly faded to green. Eggs are laid under female adult coverings. ‘Watnong Star’ was once proclaimed by Justin “Chub” Harper, donor of The Harper Collection of Dwarf and Rare Conifers, as his favorite of the dwarf hemlocks. Does it have a cap? Because the T-5 is currently offered in metric dimensions, it is ideal for new installs as opposed to retrofits. The insect is native to Asia. Have light bulbs and fixtures been cleaned recently? If you lift one, you’ll find a small soft-bodied insect inside, whereas with soft scale, the covering is often part of their body. Usually larger than armored scales 3. Key Points. The system was designed to produce more than 48,000 kilowatt hours (kWh) of energy annually and more than 1 million kWh during the next 25 years. Ideally, risers should be no higher than six feet and sized to produce larger droplet sizes that reduce the impact of wind and evaporation. ‘Cis’ is a round compact bun with glossy dark green needles. The armored scale is one of the biggest threats your garden will face. The roof on the south side of the building is about 70 percent covered with PV panels with room to add more panels in the future, he said. Some of my favorites are ‘Everitt Golden’ with its golden hues which appear as the new growth emerges in the spring; ‘Sargentii’ with its weeping, broad-spreading form; ‘Frosty’ with its spectacular white tips of new growth which linger through the growing season; and ‘Watnong Star’ with its tiny needles and strong 2-inch to 2½-inch shoots which emerge almost white and produce a star-like appearance. Realgy funded the project and built a PV system on the roof a maintenance building at Midwest’s St. Charles, Ill., location. Are the supply and return pipes insulated? Insecticide applications must be timed to ensure trees are protected prior to when nymphs insert their mouthparts into the needles and begin to feed. At the nursery, the most common geothermal technology is using a geothermal heat pump to heat or cool spaces. Overhead systems provide head-to-head coverage using partial and full arc heads, with matched precipitation rates (the same amount of water is applied regardless of arc), minimizing water application to roads and non-crop areas. Imidacloprid is the most commonly used chemical in this class but it is not effective against armored scales. Cupressus nootkatensis aka Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (Nootka false cypress, Zones 4-7(8)) is a conical specimen with numerous drooping branches with long flattened leaves which are dark bluish green or grayish green. Does the inner layer of the polyethylene film covering have infrared inhibitor and anti-condensate control? Maximizing the efficiency of crop water application is a practical way to extend finite water supplies. Euonymus scale infestations can be recognized by yellow spots on the top of leaves where scales are feeding underneath (Figure 4). Characteristics of hard scales generally include 1) two or more generations per year; 2) no honeydew production; 3) circular or rounded in shape; 4) lower crawler activity; and 5) separate protective covering. Wind and solar may come to mind first, but there are other sources available to growers. This crude technique allows you to check many scales quickly. NM. Plants in the parking lot reached 36 inches tall and 55 inches wide. Is there broken glass, torn plastic or cracks around the foundation? Diaspididae or ‘Armored Scale’. Taking the initiative to increase water use efficiency now is a proactive step toward meeting the water availability and regulation challenges of the future. Armored scale tests are not attached to their bodies. The project started with an energy audit by Energy Trust of Oregon, which wrote up a detailed lighting analysis. Increasing efficiency not only saves you money, but it also produces better plants with relatively small investments in time and technology. The armored scale is one of the biggest threats your garden will face. This year was his third growing season using wind power. Different native species are found in different specific environments. The more uniform your irrigation system is within a block, the less time you need to irrigate the driest area to ensure the crop is adequately watered. Plants were evaluated for aesthetic quality and growth rate. Pinus cembra (Swiss stone pine, Zones 2-7) cultivars are underrepresented in the trade. Common biomass types include wood, paper, yard clippings, agricultural residues, switch grass and animal waste. Facts: Females of this family are very small and conceal their bodies with a hard covering formed by wax secreted by the insect and cast skins from earlier instars. Follow Lubell on Facebook at Native Plant Gal for help with native shrub propagation and production, as well as landscape use. Natives are put to the test next to landscape standbys. This is another plant which is an investment in the future. These are classified as reduced risk insecticides due to their relatively low vertebrate toxicity. This is where Japanese maple scales, an aggressive armored scale, hang out. It powers the nursery’s irrigation system, barn lights, parts of the office and electric utility carts. P. cembra cultivars are grafted onto P. strobus rootstock using side or veneer grafting techniques. I think your scale management will get just a little easier. Our goal is to eventually run lines from the maintenance building to our headquarters to power some low-voltage equipment,” he said. Crawlers can easily be controlled by oils and contact insecticides, but successful control … Pine needle scale is an armored scale that can have two generations per year. Diaspididae or ‘Armored Scale’. Apply when scales are crawling or when the scales are still clear. Most trees and shrubs in your nursery are hosts for multiple armored scale species. Wooly adelgid has infested the hemlocks of the Northeast and is moving rapidly across the country, causing shipping restrictions and making hemlock harder to get in some areas of its growing range. Armored scale insecticide applications in citrus are extremely expensive compared with other pest control methods (Haney et al. ‘Pendula’ is a popular cultivar which produces a plant with a spectacular silhouette. Shaped like rounded bumps 4. The last step to water efficiency is proper irrigation scheduling; applying only the amount of water that can be held in the crops’ root zone until the next irrigation or rainfall event. And thanks to a grant from the USDA, tax credits and rebates from the utility company, his payback from his investment is about three years. Many types of scale insects exist, grouped into two main categories: armored scales and soft scales. The golf ball-sized flowers of buttonbush often age to reddish-pink fruits. Most trees and shrubs are hosts for multiple armored scale species that are tiny, cryptic and impervious to many insecticides. Figure 3. Deciding if management is necessary—an important IPM concept—is not well-established for scale insects or any landscape pests. Soil-applied systemic treatments of products that contain dinotefuran (Greenlight Tree & Shrub Insect Control) are especially … At Hidden Lake Gardens, we have the majority of our 19 cultivars in full sun conditions, and their performance has met our expectations. Treatment tips. Magnolia scales produce large quantities of honeydew (sugary excretion) that accumulate on the tree’s leaves and twigs. So, learn ways on how to treat hard or armored scale. Spray when the weather is mild and dry. They do not leave a toxic residue so multiple applications may be required. Greenhouse No. Magnolia scale is the largest scale insect in Iowa. American filbert can also function well in foundation plantings. Is the growing area full of plants? They insert their mouthparts into plant tissue and begin to feed and to form their protective test. Placing the correct amount of water directly on the intended crop increases the profitability of your nursery and greenhouse operation, via enhanced resource efficiency (water, energy, fertilizer and herbicide). Soft scales cannot be separated from their test so the whole insect will flip over with the cover. Cold Cathode Fluorescent Lights (CCFL) are 10–30 percent more efficient than CFLs. Produce a sugary liquid called honeydew 2. Or, you can squash some of the scales with your thumbnail. This plant exhibits very conspicuous winter buds which have been described as small pearls. A.G. Dale, NCSU. . This species can be planted in full sun to deep shade and does quite well. Dinotefuran (Green Light Tree and Shrub Insect Control with Safari 2G, Safari) controls most … Heavy infestations might kill a tree or shrub. Performing irrigation audits is more time intensive. Spray it with diluted 100% Neem Oil, using 2 tablespoons of oil to 1 gallon of water, shaking well whilst spraying all parts of the plant. It does control soft scales and other related organisms. A ballast modifies electricity for use by the fluorescent tube. Are doors, vents and shutters weather-stripped? These plants are reported to be difficult to propagate. A plant of size will command a premium price. Increasing water efficiency, so plants use most or all of the water applied, minimizes the introduction of agrichemicals to water containment ponds and the environment while reducing energy (i.e. Euonymus scale is now established in the United States and Canada and has become a major concern in many landscapes. Be sure to buy … Scale has several different “pupa” stages referred to as nymphs or instars. Unfortunately, there are no established thresholds to help growers decide if insecticide treatment is necessary. Armored scale parasites include species of tiny Aphytis and Aspidiotiphagus (family Aphelinidae), ... (REI) is the number of hours (unless otherwise noted) from treatment until the treated area can be safely entered without protective clothing. If certain areas of a grove have high armored scale numbers, determine whether encrusted fruit can be selectively harvested and sent to a packing house that uses brushes or pressure-washing equipment that can remove scale covers from fruit. These include ‘Green Arrow’ and ‘Van den Akker,’ which is an extremely narrow form. Armored scales are relatively waterproof; they live under a waxy cover. Resistant to a variety of pesticides and difficult to spot until it’s nearly too late, these insects make common aphids look harmless by comparison. In armored scale, these covers are waxy, hard, circular or rounded in shape and detached from their bodies. Let’s take a look at what each of the six native shrubs has to offer our landscapes. The SCRI-MINDS project (Managing Irrigation and Nutrition via Distributed Sensing; www.smart-farms.net/impacts) has reported increased plant growth rates and reduced production times when irrigation is more in sync with actual plant requirements. Cultivars can have yellowish foliage, bluer foliage and variegated foliage. Chamaecyparis obtusa (Hinoki false cypress, Zones 5-8) is a slender pyramid with spreading branches and frond-like drooping branchlets. Can the night temperature be lowered with a savings of 3 percent for each 1°F? When Stephen Mahoney considered a wind turbine to power part of his nursery, the idea was met with some controversy. So, if you perform this trick on a soft scale, the whole critter, test and body will fling off the branch to the ground. Armored scale insects may be the most difficult pests to manage on landscape trees and shrubs. ______. Alternative energy requires a sizeable capital investment. Scale (or armored scale) describes a common family of insects that feed on various shrubs and trees. Unlike aphids, though, scale insects hide under elaborate coverings meant to protect them from predators and the elements, as well as acting as cover for their eggs. Mahoney Farm harnesses wind These methods only provide an approximate indication of when to water, and do not indicate how much to water. Steven Courtney from Hidden Lake Gardens in Michigan presents some conifers that growers should consider adding to their production schedule. During those 30 minutes, you are wasting water for 70 percent of your block. Thailand, this armored scale is considered a pest of cycads, but is usually maintained in low densities by parasitoids (Tang et al. Adam Dale is a graduate student investigating the biology and management of nursery and landscape pests. Euonymus scale is primarily a pest of euonymus but they can also feed on pachysandra, holly, and other plants. High Pressure Sodium Lighting (HPS) is an excellent choice for exterior areas. Steeplebush (Spiraea tomentosa) Maintenance entails fixing broken sprinklers, checking orifice sizes and replacing worn nozzles, ensuring risers are vertical, confirming emitters and spray-stakes are working properly, and keeping a running log of water meters to locate hidden leaks. Don’t have a shell, instead they secrete a cotton-like or waxy substance over their bodies for protection 5. Biology For more on leaching fractions, go to www.waternut.org/moodle (“Best Management Practices: Overhead Irrigation” under “Irrigation Management”). Male armored scales are also immobile until maturity. Crawlers emerge from under the test and settle on plant stems and leaves to feed (Figure 2). A.G. Dale, NCSU. There are two types of scale insects: soft scales, otherwise known as bark scales, and hard scales, which are also called armored scales. The benefits of sensor-based irrigation management are similar to compound interest with your savings account: good decisions made on a frequent basis are likely to lead to multiple benefits, because the plant has optimal growing conditions for an extended period of time. John Lea-Cox is professor and nursery research extension specialist at the University of Maryland, jlc@umd.edu. The lifetime of CCFLs is about 50,000 hours. Do fan intake shutters close tightly? Scale is a nasty pest as it can spread quickly! Unlike soft scales, armored scales do not produce honeydew. ‘Silberlocke,’ with its curled up needles, reveals the bright silver of the bottom surface. Numerous species of scale insects, typically classified as soft or armored, can attack a broad array of shrubs. John Lea-Cox is professor and nursery research extension specialist at the University of Maryland, Chamaecyparis obtusa ‘Dainty Doll’. More importantly the systemic insecticide imidacloprid does not kill armored scales but does kill soft scales. One of the three largest families of scale, armored scales hail from the family Diaspididae. Is the hot water tank and piping insulated? By John Bartok. Adult female (gray) and male (white) euonymus scales on Japanese euonymus. Insecticides targeted to ar- mored scale must be applied in large volumes of water (750 to 2,000 gallons per acre) to penetrate the foliage and move the insecticide to the insect pest. electric) and other inputs used to move, filter and treat irrigation water before re-application. If you encounter scale of another color, it’s probably a soft scale. Buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis) The most telling sign of armored versus soft scale are the hard coverings. The nursery made the lighting upgrades with the help of the Climate Friendly Nurseries Project. 0.5 acre-inches). This can reduce plant growth and vigor. The insects themselves are quite vulnerable, so you don’t need to go in with a huge arsenal. It was surprising how well buttonbush adapted to the dry, well-drained parking lot soil conditions, considering this plant occupies wet habitats in the wild such as swamps and bogs and along the edges of lakes and rivers. Scales rarely kill a plant by themselves but may predispose plants to attack from wood-boring insects or open up wounds that provide entry sites for plant pathogens. Sweet gale will tolerate light shade and infertile soils, the latter due to its nitrogen fixing ability. For more information on nursery pest management visit http://ecoipm.com. Some cultivars are hardy to Zone 2. Remove existing scale on houseplants by rubbing gently with a facial-quality sponge or cotton swab dipped in rubbing alcohol. CCFLs can operate using as much as 65–80 percent less energy than comparable incandescent lamps and last up to 25 times longer. Plants were irrigated three times weekly for the first four weeks after planting, and twice weekly for the next six weeks. It is one of the most significant pests of cherry and peach trees. Use buttonbush for naturalizing, in the shrub border or for screening. As infestations get worse you will see scale covers and the flaky white males on plants. Sarah White is assistant professor, Nursery Extension Specialist at Clemson University. Hard Scale, Armored Scale, Soft Scale, and Mealybugs all feed on trees. Site plants near a window to enjoy the aromatic foliage indoors. 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The second way to distinguish armored and soft scales does not require such good vision and dexterity. These master mimics are everywhere, but you can learn how to detect and eliminate them from your plants in this article. There are a number of ways to keep rising energy costs from nibbling away your profits. Just be sure when using buttonbush to provide adequate space so that plants can develop to their maximum potential. “The irrigation system uses most of the juice supplied by the turbine.”. Some types of soft scales include lec… Modular CFLs have two separate parts. Compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) deliver the same lighting level, but use only 1/3 the amount of electricity of incandescent bulbs. From Mahoney ’ s energy into electricity, including wind maps at www.windpoweringamerica.gov hot thermostat. Control systems that should be done by increasing your uniformity, you can ’ t follow the traditional insect of... 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