8, November 1995, p. 1144. American fears and assumptions became more intense when India exploded a nuclear bomb in May 1974. Above and beyond the internal power struggle, the conflict has acquired the character of a proxy war in which international, regional and subna-tional conflicts are fought out. 28. Thus, the Soviet Union vetoed all the resolutions in the Security Council which did not aim for ceasefire and recognition of the will of East Pakistan's population. Only cooperation can help in fostering peace and cooperation in the region. On May 11, 1998, India conducted three nuclear tests at Pokhran to be followed by two more sub-kiloton tests on May 13.21 The international response was critical. Rajan, India's Foreign Policy and Relations (New Delhi: South Asian Publishers, 1985), pp. Much to the liking of China, Pakistan's role in engaging India on its western border is not diminishing.20, The year 1998 is crucial for both India and Pakistan which openly expressed their nuclear capability by conducting nuclear tests. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. This was the first declaration by the Indian government favouring nuclear weapons.13 Indian anxiety over the Chinese nuclear programme had never diminished since 1964; in fact, with the launching of China's first nuclear missile in October 1966, Indian concerns became more critical.14 The Indian debate on the bomb became more intense when China launched its first satellite in 1970. 25. The Pakistan Embassy in Nepal is reported to be providing financial assistance and transit facilities to the Kashmiri militants. Saturday, December 19, 2020. The remaining roots of the proxy war are now in Pakistan and Pakistan occupied Kashmir. Efforts have been made by Pakistan to link the Kashmir issue with the issues of nuclear non-proliferation and Siachen. In order for a conflict to be considered a proxy war, there must be a direct, long-term relationship between external actors and the belligerents involved. In the same year, the Pakistan Atomic Research Reactor was established with the help of the USA and it functions under the safeguards of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The Soviets constantly issued protest notes to Pakistan that the US air bases in Pakistan had a direct bearing on their security. 108-109. 1-2, February-March 1995, p. 42. …a proxy war by Pakistan in two Indian provinces merely affects less than 10% of all Indian provinces, a proxy war by India in two Pakistani provinces can affect 40% of Pakistan. India strived towards attainment of self-sufficiency in the nuclear programme but this was not possible for a newly independent country to achieve on its own. - It is the US which started the first proxy war in Afghanistan against the USSR using Pakistan and thus introducing the idea of proxy war in this region. However, after the conduct of nuclear tests by both countries, the American Secretary of State, Madeleine Albright, said that the US was "re-examining the underlying political problems between India and Pakistan including Kashmir. ... Central Asian States are Pakistan’s worst external enemies. The US is critical of the Chinese transfer of technology to Pakistan to manufacture nuclear weapons, and components to make M-11 intermediate range ballistic missile in violation of the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR). The Bangladesh war and its impact on the power structure in South Asia, the Afghanistan crisis, the supply of advanced technology and weapons to Pakistan by China, a Pakistan oriented US foreign policy etc., have been the external situational inputs of Indian Foreign Policy. We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. After the US arms embargo during the war, Pakistan aligned with China to pursue its national interest of becoming militarily strong to counter India. The US and Japan imposed economic sanctions. Conventional warfare finds itself slowly being replaced by the emergence of modern warfare. The US sent "Task Force 74" headed by the nuclear powered carrier Enterprise and half a dozen other ships into the Bay of Bengal through the Straits of Malacca. Meanwhile the Indo-Pak conflict was being discussed at the United Nations. Hence, for the supply of weapons, reliance on outside suppliers, mainly the UK and later France, had to continue. Muni, "The Emerging Cold War in Asia: India's Options," Strategic Analysis, vol. This paper tries to study the presence of the external powers in the region and their association with India and Pakistan. Refer V.D. Subsequently, the Soviets despatched a force of six vessels to the Indian Ocean. Direct involvement hurts the brand value of countries in the international arena so they employ proxy wars to engage other aggressors. This 700-km-long line running from Chammb in the south to Ladakh at NJ 9842 point after which there is glacier, provided the future battleground between the two countries in the glaciers. India accuses Pakistan only and refuses its involvement in Afghanistan while the Pakistani and Afghan officials repeatedly discussed the solutions to the proxy war. During the 1965 War, the Soviet Union adopted a neutral stand and offered its good offices for a peaceful settlement between the two warring states. Sodhi "Living with Neighbours: Pakistan" Defence Today, vol. The conference lasted from January 4-10, 1966, at which they agreed to create good relations in accordance with the UN Charter, to promote understanding and friendly relations and a total pull-out of troops before February 25, 1966 to their pre-war positions.8 Russia emerged as a peace-maker at a time when the US was involved in the Vietnam War. Pakistan has mastered the craft of proxy war over the last three decades in Afghanistan and Kashmir. After the war, the Government of India tried to resolve the differences with Pakistan on a new and firm basis. With the global emphasis on geo-economics, the Sino-India and US-India relations have improved which could be affected by the nuclear explosions conducted by India. Since then, Pakistan has been asking Indian forces to withdraw from their positions and accept the boundary as was acceptable in 1972, whereas India insists that Pakistan accept the Saltoro Ridge as the line of control.34 The contentious issue persists. However, after the nuclear tests conducted by both India and Pakistan, Russian Foreign Minister Yevgeny Primakov extended a three-point proposal including the P-5 mediation on Kashmir. It was believed that the Indian nuclear weapons would compel China and Pakistan to change their attitude of hostility towards India. The actors here treat the conflict as a zero-sum game, where success for one is automatically a defeat for the other. In phase one, low level insurgency in India was advocated which included planting people at key positions like police, financial institutions, etc; armed groups to be trained to meet the paramilitary forces; the lines of communications to be disrupted between Jammu and Kashmir; and exacerbation of anti-India feelings. However, during President Clinton's visit to China in July 1998, the issue was not raised for discussion. A proxy war involves the use of third parties as substitutes for fighting each other directly while powers have sometimes even used governments as proxies. The Pakistan army has been most confident of the sub-conventional or covert war dimension of its … 4. Negotiations were held with the UK, France, Belgium, Canada and the US for equipment and materials to develop Indian resources. Refer Brahma Chellany "The Challenge of Nuclear Arms Control in South Asia," Survival, vol. Reiterating the Indian security concerns, the Indian Minister of State for External Affairs, Vasundhara Raje, said in Parliament that the government has communicated its apprehensions to various countries, including China, at a bilateral level about the defence cooperation between China and Pakistan, including supply of materials and technology.18 Starting with the transfer of technology for building the reprocessing plant at Nilore in 1965 to agreeing to supply heavy water in May 1976, the nuclear cooperation between the two countries has evolved considerably. Despite the possession of nuclear weapons by India and Pakistan, there is a realisation that the nuclear weapons have only deterrent value and war is not the solution to any problem in the region. The UK was the first on the preference list of the suppliers of weapons as the existing arms and equipment were mainly of British origin and it was logical to replace the spare parts from the original source. The Tibetan uprising in 1959 led India to buy transport planes and helicopters from the Soviet Union as the Soviets were prepared to accept payment in Indian currency. The new version of the Pakistani proxy war against this country is surfacing day in and day out. India and Pakistan The proxy war. China's technical assistance to Pakistan in its nuclear programme is of special concern to India. India's role as a regional power was asserted. The interest shown by China in the Indo-Pak subcontinent became a matter of concern to the American policy makers. The 1965 War opened with a Pakistani revanche to win over Kashmir and Rann of Kutch. K.K. 3. Both sides presented different priorities of items on the agenda but later they agreed to a mutually acceptable draft for the agenda. The people of the two countries feared the social and political turmoil which they had undergone. However, the most notable feature after partition was Pakistan's fear of India's strength which outclasses it in every comparison. The geo-strategic location of Kashmir with a predominant Muslim population was the paradise and asset that Pakistan was determined to gain. Therefore, the US lifted the arms embargo partially in 1967 and agreed to sell non-lethal weapons to both India and Pakistan. In order to mobilise the opinion of the world leaders, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi sent letters and emissaries to various Asian and Western governments. India not only countered the attack militarily but also lodged a complaint with the United Nation's Secretary General on December 30, 1947, against the Pakistani invasion on Kashmir. This is the Pakistani idea of "strategic depth." However, through diplomatic efforts, India has been trying to negotiate with China. Pakistan is at war with itself. Refer Abba Dixit, "India, Pakistan and the Great Powers" in Jasjit Singh ed., India and Pakistan: Crisis of Relationship (New Delhi: Lancers International, 1990), p. 21. Proxy wars are fought through a third state without being directly involved in the war. Pakistan felt let down by the US which should have extended help to them as per the assurances given to them when Pakistan joined the South-East Asia Treaty Organisation (SEATO) and Central Treaty Organisation (CENTO). NOW PLAYING: Travel Pakistan still fighting proxy wars, says Rajnath Singh, also targets China The Times of India All along, military planners in Pakistan have derived unmitigated comfort in the fact that proxy war could be conducted in the shadow of nuclear capability, thus obviating conventional conflict. In Pakistan, troubles mounted in East Pakistan. Major powers have been highlighted in bold. "23 He hoped that Pakistan would not respond to the Indian action but a few days later, Pakistan also conducted six nuclear tests on June 28 and 30. This has been especially true since the events of This paper tries to study the presence of the external powers in the region and their association with India and Pakistan. Today proxy warfare is best defined as sponsorship of conventional or irregular forces that lie outside the constitutional order of states. Partitioning of Kashmir between India and Pakistan; First Balochistan Conflict (1948) Dominion of Pakistan: Kalat insurgents Victory. America had been constantly supplying weapons to Pakistan in pursuance of its policy of the Containment of Communism which was further aggravated by the presence of the Soviets in Afghanistan and the collapse of its Iranian ally. The Indian government opened its border at the eastern sector for the refugees whose numbers had reached approximately ten million. Refer Shrikant Paranjpe, US Non-Proliferation Policy in Action: South Asia (New Delhi: Sterling Publishers, 1987), p. 22. In short, proxy wars … This gives an independent status to the Pakistani threat perceptions which need not be guided or propelled by India. The 1971 War had witnessed the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea as the theatre of war. India has been both the target and the transit point for the narcotics. The US policy towards the region is guided by its own interests. This is a list of proxy wars. Phase two advocated more intense engagement of the Indian Army in Poonch or Siachen in order to keep them away from the valley, and destroy their base depots, airfields, radio stations and block the Banihal tunnel and Kargil-Leh highway with the help of Afghan Mujahideen from POK. The Cold War tensions between India and Pakistan resulted in three wars over Kashmir. Refer Nisha Sahai Achuthan, Soviet Arms Transfer Policy in South Asia 1955-81 (New Delhi: Lancers International, 1988), pp. Pakistan proved useful to the US in its policy of Containment of Communism in the region. The Indo-Pak relations have reached a new threshold where the arms race has led to modernisation of their weapons and development of nuclear capabilities. Terms & Conditions, Copyright © 2020 Daily Times Website Developed By Daily Times Developers. India has been instigating proxy war in Afghanistan mainly against Pakistan that began after the collapse of Dr. Najibullah’s regime in 1992, which had been backed by the former USSR. 1. Pakistan has also been cultivating relations with the Muslims of the Terai and India through setting up Muslim organisations which not only impart training and religious education but also foment anti-India activities. It is said that the money generated through smuggling of narcotics is used to keep terrorism and insurgency alive. In the northern front, Kashmir was once again posing a problem. Thus, the Indo-Pak politics took a new turn, with new allies, which brought added tension in the subcontinent. 27. Indo-Pak Conflict and the Role of External Powers. Shukla, India and Pakistan: The Origins of Armed Conflict (New Delhi: Deep & Deep Publications, 1984), p. 13. The US presence in the Indian Ocean brought in the Soviet naval presence. The SSP, getting funds from both Iraq and Saudi Arabia, was further supported by the Iraq-Iran war of 1980’s, as the parties to the war made Pakistan a proxy theater. With this strategic view, the war of 1948 was waged in which Pakistan occupied parts of Kashmir. The Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) is the main agency to supply weapons, finance, and guidance to the Kashmiri militants. China has always considered it the sovereign right of any nation to develop its own nuclear weapons.31 However, after the nuclear tests conducted by India, China reacted strongly and urged the US to take stringent measures against India. It also tried to accumulate weapons from all the available sources. The glacier opens at the Nubra Valley in Ladakh and can provide access to inimical powers to enter Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir. religious extremism; the role of external factors in augmenting sectarian divide in Pakistan and foreign forces got a free hand to launch their proxy war in Pakistan on sectarian grounds; and strategies should be formulated to deal with the challenge of sectarian violence in Pakistan. In the United Nations, on December 22, 1971, an Argentinian resolution demanding a ceasefire in Kashmir was adopted by thirteen votes without any opposition, though the former Soviet Union and Poland abstained from voting. This increased the Soviet interest in the South Asian region, particularly with India which was less rigid about accepting arms from the Soviet Union after the US arms aid given to Pakistan. The pursuit of power and global supremacy has birthed nothing but devastation. The Indian nuclear programme was considered as a weapons programme and the focus was concentrated on stockpiling of fissionable material that the US claimed India was building. A proxy war involves the use of third parties as substitutes for fighting each other directly while powers have sometimes even used governments as proxies. Pakistan pronounced its nuclear option as a defensive measure to forestall the nuclear blackmail and hegemony of India.15. In The Brookings Essay, Historian William Dalrymple examines Afghanistan's future as the U.S. and allies withdraw, a future caught between India and Pakistan in a potentially deadly proxy war. The state of Jammu and Kashmir remained independent during partition and agreed to merge with India when the armed tribesman from Pakistan infiltrated into the state. Refer Ratna Tikoo, Indo-Pak Relations: Politics of Divergence and Convergence (Delhi: National Publishing House, 1987), p. 220. The US government acknowledges Pakistan's involvement in aiding international terrorism but it also pronounces the violation of human rights as a problem in Kashmir. 26, no. 4, no. Pakistan's nuclear programme began in the mid-1950s when the Pakistan Energy Commission was set up under the Chairmanship of Nazir Ahmed. 29. Anarchy in the international arena has destroyed lives due to the demolition wreaked. 34. 25. Latest News 13. Benchmarks . We cannot ignore proxy wars being initiated by other countries inside Pakistan and it is up to our elite agencies to ensure that they do not let this menace raise its head in our country. The US, on the other hand, sent twelve C-130 Hercules transport planes with the crews to help India in transporting its men and materials on the mountainous borders.5. Its integration is important not only because of its strategic significance but also because its disintegration would have a spillover effect on other states leading to the balkanisation of the Indian Union.25, Pakistan maintains that Kashmir is the prime contentious issue with India and unless it is resolved, cooperation in other areas is not possible. America is opposed to the Indian and the Pakistani moves to go for the nuclear bomb as it could encourage other countries to go nuclear, thus, leading to a breakdown of the existing international nuclear order. Investor Information 10. The Indo-Pak subcontinent experienced a rise in defence expenditure soon after the war. They have created tensions here, and have also helped in resolving some tensions; they have created problems but have kept them from escalating into unmanageable propositions. It is hoped that these groups can strike an opponent without leading to full-scale war. 19, no. 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In 1977, the US enacted the Symington Amendment, which prohibits aid to countries with uranium enrichment facilities. COMPETITIVE patriotism is the mood of the moment on the subcontinent. Refer Dieter Brown, The Indian Ocean: Region of Conflict or "Zone of Peace"? Pakistan kindled in the Arab world the feeling that only the Islamic world does not have a nuclear bomb. 35, no. For Pakistan, the Kashmir issue is not only crucial for its religious ideology of being a protagonist of the Muslims but is also useful in raising the external threat of India ready to wage an armed conflict because of Kashmir. In 1973, the US decided to modify its policy of arms embargo on Pakistan by permitting the sale of non-lethal equipment and spare parts. 139, p. 1688. Refer Ashok Krishna, India's Armed Forces: Fifty Years of War and Peace (New Delhi: Lancer Publishers, 1998), p. 10. Refer POT (P), vol. Pakistan was agitated by the Kennedy Administration's limited military aid to India during the Sino-India War. Mirza Aslam Beg "Pakistan's Nuclear Programme: A National Security Perspective," National Development and Security, vol. India finds the NPT discriminative between the nuclear haves and have-nots. As discussed earlier, the external powers were indirectly involved in the regional wars (through arms aid) and actively involved in the Security Council, thus, exacerbating the already existing tensions. Indian Express, July 8, 1989, and Telegraph, May 25, 1998. 26. As discussed earlier, the ceasefire line between India and Pakistan stops at Point NJ9842; beyond the point lies the Siachen Glacier after which the border between India and Pakistan has not been demarcated. Editor’s Picks, Contact Arun Mohanty, "Russia Proposes P-5 mediation in J&K," The Pioneer, June 4, 1998. When that happens Pakistan feels that it must be in position to install a friendly regime in Kabul, one that will expel the Indian advisors, spies, diplomats, contactors, etc and provide a potentially friendly area to the rear of Pakistan in the event of another major war with India. It is said that President Zia-ul-Haq had put into action a three-phase plan for the liberation of the Kashmir Valley. Many analyst say that Syrian war is a flight between US and Russia but US is fighting through Turkey (proxy) not directly. Robert L. Hardgrave Jr., India Under Pressure: Prospects for Political Stability (USA: West View Press, 1984), p. 159. The Indo-Pak War in 1971 witnessed direct intervention by the US and the former USSR. Daniel L. Byman Aug 19th 1999. delhi AP. A proxy war is an armed conflict between two states or non-state actors which act on the instigation or on behalf of other parties that are not directly involved in the hostilities. In the course of time, the Cold War rivalry between the two Great Powers percolated down to South Asia. In 1948, Pakistan sent Waziri and Mansud tribals from the North-West Frontier to free Kashmir from the Hindu Maharajah. 2, no. Hence, India and Pakistan started building their naval strength which has become a commendable force. The Indian nuclear policy underwent changes after the Sino-Indian War in 1962 and the first Chinese bomb explosion in 1964 which forced Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri to dilute the policy of Nehru. Though it had pledged to respect the Treaty of Peace and Friendship with India, it also made efforts to develop relations with Pakistan. The American government argued that Pakistan had agreed for the establishment of political autonomy of the Eastern sector after the American mediation in November 1971. It is a dire need of the hour render powerful dynamics that allow people to harmoniously coexist in the world by maintaining good ties with one another. external actors. Refer A. Appadorai and M.S. The only way India can ensure that Pakistans proxy war is brought to a quick end is by dismembering Pakistan. This enabled Pakistan to persuade the US to lift the arms embargo. Turkey shot down the fighter planes of Russia in Syria. In October 1960, an Indian delegation went to Moscow to negotiate and finalise the deal for the purchase of aircraft and communications equipment. Proxy wars are the product of a relationship between a benefactor, who is a state or non-state actor external to the dynamic of an existing conflict, and the chosen proxies who are the conduit for the benefactor’s weapons, training and funding. Both the United States and the former Soviet Union have vied with each other for gaining a foothold in the South Asian region. However, much of the world is busy in different wars, especially in proxy wars. 3, July-September 1996, p. 334. The attention of the respective governments was diverted towards their internal issues. The UN Security Council deplored the tests and urged India to refrain from further tests.22 Chinese President Jiang Zemin accused India of blaming China and Pakistan for their nuclear tests whereas the nuclear cooperation between the two countries is "strictly peaceful in the area of technology of nuclear reactors and all installations concerned are under the control of the International Atomic Energy Agency. 70-71. He recognised India as the primary threat and India's nuclear programme as directly against Pakistan, which became more pronounced in the Pakistani perception after the Pokhran explosion. 11. America agreed to the Pakistani demand of plebiscite in Kashmir. 14. 32. 26, no. 3, July-September 1996, p. 345. 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