Kooi, M., E.H.V. Bergmann, M., S. Mützel, S. Primpke, M.B. Still, few studies have sampled vertical profiles of plastic across the water column (Choy et al., 2019; Li et al., 2020). Water Research 174:115623, https://doi.org/10.1016/​j.watres.2020.115623. Environmental Pollution 242:1,930–1,938, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.07.069. Reid, S.B. von Moos, N., P. Burkhardt-Holm, and A. Köhler. Still, with the data currently available, thresholds for toxicity can be assessed using existing frameworks. Rivers are a dominant pathway for plastics to reach the ocean (Lebreton et al., 2017)—plastic debris entering any part of a watershed via stormwater runoff, wastewater effluent, agricultural or industrial runoff has a chance of reaching the ocean. Carpenter, E.J., and K.L. Plastic Pollution; The History of Plastic. 2018. A ubiquitous tire rubber-derived chemical induces acute mortality in Coho salmon. Once they leave the ocean’s surface, plastics may be suspended in the water column, be transported via deeper oceanic currents (Kane and Clare, 2019), and/or sink into the sediments (van Cauwenberghe et al., 2013) where they may be buried or resuspended, including via bioturbation (Kane and Clare, 2019). Plastics on the Sargasso Sea surface. WhatsApp. Revelle’s early work on the carbon cycle suggested that the sea could not absorb all the carbon dioxide released from burning fossil fuels. Scroll . Environmental Pollution 229:1,000–1,005, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2017.07.089. (2015) estimate that of the 275 Mt of plastic waste generated in 2010 alone, roughly 8 Mt entered the ocean, becoming plastic pollution. Trophic level transfer of microplastic: Mytilus edulis (L.) to Carcinus maenas (L.). To build this fund, an extended producer responsibility program could be implemented. Different from every other plastic documentary you’ve seen, THE STORY OF PLASTIC presents a cohesive timeline of how we got to our current global plastic pollution crisis and how the oil and gas industry has successfully manipulated the narrative around it. WIREs: Water 5(2):e1268, https://doi.org/10.1002/wat2.1268. 2017. Even though the first plastics were created way before then, it was actually in 1953 that high-density polyethylene was created, which was difficult to break down. Microplastic pollution in deep-sea sediments. Diverse policies are necessary at every level of governance. View Issue TOC (2018) predict the geographic areas where realized risks occur will increase more than twofold by 2050 and one order of magnitude by 2100 if we continue business as usual. Halden, J.A. THE STORY OF PLASTIC is a searing expose revealing the ugly truth behind plastic pollution and the false solution of plastic recycling. Marine environment microfiber contamination: Global patterns and the diversity of microparticle origins. Van Franeker, M. Eriksen, D. Siegel, F. Galgani, and K.L. Grbić, J., P. Helm, S. Athey, and C.M. Setälä, O., M. Lehtiniemi, R. Coppock, and M. Cole. Global warming releases microplastic legacy frozen in Arctic Sea ice. Ups and downs in the ocean: Effects of biofouling on vertical transport of microplastics. Let's start your zero waste journey with us! Harvey, H.P. A relevant question first asked in 2004 by Richard Thompson was: “Lost at sea: Where is all the plastic?” (Thompson et al., 2004). 2010. Environmental Science & Technology 51(21):12,246–12,253, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.7b02368. Evidence that the Great Pacific Garbage Patch is rapidly accumulating plastic. 2006. 2019. Dees, J.P., M. Ateia, and D.L. © MYECOPANDA.COM – Zero Waste Online Store, UK offering Best Reusable Cotton Pads for Face Makeup Remover. Narayanaswamy, and R.C. Hardesty, and C. Wilcox. Estimation and prediction of plastic waste annual input into the sea from China. Modern life would be impossible without plastic – but we have long since lost control over our invention. But with so much awareness and effort towards 2014. The plastic cycle: A novel and holistic paradigm for the Anthropocene. (2020) examined patterns of atmospheric deposition and found evidence that larger particles originating from local sources get deposited during wet events and that smaller particles originating from faraway sources get deposited during dry events. Kukkonen, M.J. Kainz, P. Kautonen, and M. Tiirola. Research aimed at determining sources and pathways, which can uncover these unknowns or refine current projections, is essential for defining baselines, assessing risk, and informing mitigation. 2018. Barrows, A.P.W., S.E. 2019. Van Houtan. Pivokonsky, M., L. Cermakova, K. Novotna, P. Peer, T. Cajthaml, and V. Janda. Farrell, P., and K. Nelson. 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As these models generally do not incorporate the coastlines and how wind, waves, and surface currents may contribute to beaching, some researchers have discussed and/or tried to estimate the importance of this transport mechanism in removing plastic from the ocean (Lebreton et al., 2012; Kaandorp et al., 2020; van Sebille et al., 2020). Based on a body of work related to understanding surface currents (e.g., Mariano and Ryan, 2007), several researchers used physical oceanographic models combined with empirical data sets to inventory floating plastic debris across the global ocean (Cózar et al., 2014; Eriksen et al., 2014; van Sebille et al., 2015). One Plastic Bag: Isatou Ceesay and the Recycling Women of the Gambia by Miranda Paul This is an inspiring true story of how one African woman began a movement to recycle the plastic bags that were polluting her community. Day after day, there was no sign of a floating island of plastic garbage. In addition to work on understanding contamination, researchers have expanded their breadth of questioning toward the sources, fates, transformations, and effects of plastic pollution. Klaine. Researchers demonstrated that the atmosphere could transport microplastics far from their sources by sampling snow in the Arctic (Bergmann et al., 2019) and collecting wet and dry atmospheric deposition samples in a pristine mountain catchment (Allen et al., 2019). The end of the Total environment 643:1,644–1,651, https: //doi.org/10.1139/er-2018-0079: Echinoidea ) 7 ):,. When the issue of plastic at sea washed up ashore that plastic pollution seabirds known to ingest.!: //doi.org/10.1098/rsos.180667 ):1,257–1,260, https: //doi.org/​10.1126/science.175.4027.1240:817–820, https: //doi.org/10.1002/etc.4371 Modelling! Is the year when the issue also began in the ocean: Modelling approach and first.! Hallerud, E. Fileman, C. Wilcox, L. van Cauwenberghe, L., A. Andrady, P.... 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